Everything about potatoes you need to know. potato varieties are one of the most consumed crops in the world. potato benefits are much and, It is intended for human consumption as fresh, cattle feed as well as raw materials for the food industries such as chips, frozen potatoes and more. potato packaging is one of important things for potato export iran.
Given the large number of countries devoted to its culture and the large variety of potatoes available, it ensures access to markets throughout the year.
Everything about potatoes: Eat and Nutritious
Potatoes are a good source of energy and contain a lot of folates, vitamin C, B vitamins, iron and potassium. Green potato consumption is harmful because it contains a compound that is toxic if consumed in large quantities.
Potatoes are one of the most consumed crops in the world. It is intended for human consumption as fresh, cattle feed as well as raw material for the food and feed industries such as chips, potato shells, frozen potatoes and more.
Given the large number of countries devoted to its culture and the many potato varieties, it ensures access to markets throughout the year.
Potato varieties have numerous uses: they can be considered for direct human consumption, cattle feed, many processing industries such as low-water purée production, crisp making, chips, cooked, frozen etc. and can also be considered for industry Starch should also be considered. For the purposes of nutrition or the distillery industry to obtain alcohol.
The name “Patata” (potato) was given by the Spanish for its similarity to the “batatas”, the original name that some cities defined as the sweet potato anthill, the same plants that were conquered in the early years of America
Potatoes are an essential element of the Mediterranean diet and are given to many domestic animals for food. It is also necessary to obtain by-products in some industries.
It is a very demanding culture, both for soil and for fertilizers and needs strong defense against the large number of insect-attacking plants and their tubers.
The potato is a tuber, round or oval, and its small roots are white called “eyes”, which are buds of growth. The size varies depending on the type. Skin color can be white, yellow or even purple.
Potato culture was very important in Ireland because it was part of the basic food. However, this enormous dependency leads to famine when we see the mildew attacked; a large part of the population has migrated to the North American region and fled the disaster. Potato varieties are one of the most widespread crops on all continents. And because of its increased use, it becomes more important.
The potato production area is very wide and depends on the weather conditions of each location and not on the soil. Potato production has spread to all N and S hemisphere except tropical countries. Because it is very elevated and cold, the potatoes can be cultivated up to 1000 meters above sea level.
Potatoes can be yielded in green (summer in geographical area N) before maximum dry matter (starch) is obtained. It is used as a “new potato”, with a lipid quality that makes it fit for salads. Potato varieties are classified as “out of year”, “early” and “late”, indicating the time needed to reach them. The late potatoes, harvested in the fall, are stored in controlled atmospheres and are available for marketing until the “extraordinary” potatoes come on the market again.
Therefore, according to the 2001 New Year’s table book, potatoes are available all year round in the Iran potato market. Countries such as Belgium, Pakistan and Italy supply potatoes year-round. Others, such as Spain, grow potatoes from late spring (in the N hemisphere) to early summer.
The potato belongs to the family Solanaceae, and the fruit is an organ that grows beneath the soil called the tuber. It is a herbaceous plant that is cultivated annually and is very demanding in the water. It reproduces in a vegetative way.
Potato, Solarium tuberous L., is a herbaceous plant that is perennial due to its tubers but is planted as an annual plant. The potato is a round green berry that turns yellow when it arrives.
The potato plant has a rhizome-type aerial and underground vascular system that originates from the tuber. Its roots are shoots, shoots are straight and leaves are compound.
Underneath the ground, the stems produce some membrane starches called tubers, which we know as potatoes. They may have a scale that is the growth buds. They are known as the “eyes”.
The potato plant has a very toxic substance, called selanine, which may appear in the tubers if exposed to direct sunlight.
Potatoes need good culture conditions. This requires high and regular humidity mainly during the formation of the pipe, it suffers from high temperatures
The main potato is from South America, where it was a staple food for indigenous people. Until the nineteenth century, Europe could not grow it strongly.
Iran is one of The main country in produce potato, while the Netherlands is the export leader.
The Andean potatoes appear to have originated in South America and have been cultivated in the high altitudes of Chile, Peru and Ecuador since ancient times.
Early Spanish explorers paid particular attention to potatoes, because corn was part of the native food of the indigenous population. They brought them to Spain in the middle of the fourteenth century and for the first time raised them for aesthetic purposes more than economics and intended to raise them for animal husbandry.
Over time, species improve in flavor and size. Due to the severe shortages at that time, people introduced potatoes into their diet.
In a short time this culture spread to all European countries. The French, Italian and English people paid more attention to the immense possibilities of this culture that was produced in almost all climates.
Ireland was most interested in intensifying its culture and became a staple in the daily diet. This was known as “poor people’s bread”. It was so important to them that when the mildew attacked potatoes it was devastating to crops, so the Irish population fled to North America and fled from Famine.
Thanks to the large consumption of this tuber and newer, more productive and profitable varieties, this culture has not grown until the 19th century.
Potatoes are a highly consumed and widely used product in industry that has been cultivated in large quantities on every continent.
In Spain, most of the cultivated potatoes are intended primarily for export, especially early and extraordinary varieties. Thanks to their privileged climate, they are the first to offer special varieties of Central European markets.
As shown in the table below, world production is driven by Europe and Asia is closely followed:
The following are the top 10 manufacturers along with their production evolution over the past years:
As can be seen, China is the most productive country in the world, followed by the Russian and Polish Federation, thanks to the potato adaptation to cold weather.
In Spain, the main production areas are the Canary Islands, where the extraordinary early varieties are produced, and the Mediterranean coast and Balearic Islands, where the primary varieties are cultivated.
As for exports, the top 10 exporters of potatoes are:
These tables show that northern European countries are the main importer of potatoes and the seeds constitute a major part of imports.
The growth period of different potato varieties
There are thousands of species in the world. A reasonable criterion is the classification based on the duration of the culture cycle, which can range from 90 to 200 days. So we have early, partial and half potatoes.
The potato is a starch-rich, round, or oval tuber and contains some mineral proteins called “eyes” that are growth buds. Its size varies considerably and the skin color varies from yellow to purple.
Since this species is very wide, the species classification is done according to different characteristics such as: skin color and texture, meat color, number of “eyes”, tuber shape, efficiency, resistance to plague and disease Etc. One of the classifications is based on the size and color of the skin. According to this criterion, we mainly divide into 4 groups:
- – Round gold: They are round or oval and have a thin, smooth skin, firm texture and a dry taste.
- – Reddish-length: Oval-length, smooth and dark skin and meal.
- – White length: elongated, thin and smooth white skin, firm texture.
- – Round red: round shape, smooth red skin, thin and light, firm texture.
Another criterion is agronomic, which refers to the duration of culture. Therefore, we recognize:
A) early varieties, 90-day culture cycle
– White Meat: “Royal Kidney”, “Etoile du Leon”.
– Yellow or yellow meat: “Viola”, “Jaerla”, “Duquesa”, “Belle de Fontanay”.
B) Half-year-old species, 90 and 120 days of culture cycle.
– White Meat: “King Edward”
– Yellow or yellow meat: “Bintje”.
C) varieties of semilat, with a culture cycle between 120 and 150 days.
– White meat: “Turia”, “Magnificent”.
– Yellow or yellow meat: “Desirée”.
D) Late types, culture cycle between 150 and 200 days.
– White meat: “Víctor”, “updated”.
– Yellow or yellow meat: “Alpha”.
There is a wide range of cultivars that use different plant materials. There is an interest in consuming Iranian varieties of very hard and yellow meats right now.
There are also different types that are specifically intended for livestock.
Some types of potato varieties include:
The potato is very early, with long tubers, delicate yellowish skins, poor nutrition, white meat and good performance.
Ethel De Leon
Half length tubers, regular shape, yellow skin, white, good meat and excellent performance.
Primary round tubers, yellow skin, white meat and excellent quality.
Primary claviform tubers, yellow skin and fine flesh and excellent quality.
Long and short glands, yellow skin, white meat and excellent quality.
Claw gland of regular size, smooth skin, yellowish flesh and excellent quality.
Belle de Fontenay
Tubers of various shapes, surface buds, dark yellow skin, high quality fleshy flesh, although highly demanding in soil and organic fertilizers.
Round tuber, smooth and smooth skin, yellow, white flesh and white quality.
Oval tuber excellent, uniform, pinkish skin, white meat of excellent quality.
Oval tuber, yellow skin, flesh of white quality.
Large size tuber, white skin with pink spots, white flesh and matte.
Long glands, yellow skin, white meat and excellent performance.
Potatoes slightly elongated, reddish skin, oval gland and bright yellow flesh.
Tubers large, round to oval and bright yellow flesh.
The most common way to find potatoes, thanks to the wide variety of potato packaging machines that do this, is purse and sack. Among these boxes are 1 and 2.5kg tubular mesh bags and “Girsac” mesh bags with an outer strand that acts as a label and as handles, with a capacity of 2kg. This method of transporting potatoes is realized as initial packaging, as the buyer only has to choose the mesh or bag of their choice. Some other equipment used in these boxes are plastic containers (perforated) or paper bags that are used for small amounts: 2.5 (for plastic), 5,10,15 and 25 kg (for paper).
Another way is to send potatoes in bulk. They are usually packed in luggage bags with a capacity of more than 10.5 and 25 kg and are provided as a free service to the consumer.
Other packages used are cartons and wooden boxes.
Among the cardboard packages are 6kg packs with a base of 500 * 300mm, luggage trays for 2.5kg, 5kg boxes with side plastic holes to find the product and a superior opening where the fingers We find that it easier to manipulate, as well as 12kg boxes.
For thermoplastic packaging of potatoes, good quality preservation results have been investigated. However, this system is very expensive for a low-cost product such as potatoes.
Health potato benefits
Nutritionally, potatoes are a good source of energy (75 K Cal per 100 g). Since it is used as a staple food, it also provides you with large amounts of folate, vitamin C, thiamin (B1), potassium and iron and at the same time significantly contributes to protein intake. In fact, if we eat enough potatoes to meet our energy needs, we get a balanced amount of nutrients, except for the fat-soluble vitamins. Among the phytochemicals found in potatoes are coumarines and anthoxanthins. Green potatoes should be avoided because they contain toxic glycocaloids.
A popular tradition
Potato extract is recommended for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract such as wounds, gastritis, etc. Starch is shown on the other hand for gums, wounds, burns, eruptions and so on.
Potatoes contain 75% water and 15% starch, 2% protein and only 1.1% fat. It contains carbohydrates, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, starch and lots of vitamin C. It is also rich in complex vitamins B, B1 and B6 and pantothenic acid.
Contrary to most people’s opinion, potatoes are a high-energy diet that is allowed for diabetics and obese people and prefers bowel functions like a dead weight. It is also a disinfectant and healing product.
Crude extract is recommended in cases of indigestion, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastritis, hepatitis and biliary lithiasis, constipation, hemorrhoids, gliosis and diabetes. Because of its diuretic and soothing properties, it is used to digest mucus and is antispasmodic.
Starch is suitable for blood cells, burns, wounds, foot ulcers, rashes and cracks as a local softener.
Export potato from Iran
The tenth largest exporter of potatoes in the world is Iran. In fact, Iran is one of the largest potato exporters in the world. Because Iran produces a lot of potatoes.
Potato production in Iran has increased sixteen times since 1960. Iranians are one of the major producers of potatoes. They harvest 24 tonnes of potatoes on their farms. Iranian potato exports are one of the economic activities that many economic activists do.
The average price of potatoes in Iran last year was $ 0.4. This is an average price. This means you can also buy potatoes from Iran at a cheaper price.
Of course, the packaging and quality of the potatoes increases the price. One of the best quality potatoes in Iran is harvested.
If the potatoes in your country are expensive. You can buy potatoes from Iran. You can easily buy this product through the sea routes available in Iran. And be sure that it is affordable for you.
Iran is one of the largest exporters of food. The biggest countries that trade with Iran are:
- Central Asia Countries
- Saudi Arabia
- United Arab Emirates